Text Mining II


October 25, 2023


Welcome to the third practical of the week!

The aim of this practical is to introduce you to word embedding, and enhance your understanding of sentiment analysis by doing dictionary-based sentiment embedding.

library(tidyverse) # as always :)
library(tidytext)  # for text mining
library(text2vec)  # our dataset comes from this package

Word Embedding

In this part of the practical we will use word embedding. To work with text, we need to transform it into numerical values. One way is to count the words and weight their frequency (e.g. with TF-IDF). Another method is word embedding. Word embedding techniques such as word2vec and GloVe use neural networks to construct word vectors. With these techniques, words in similar contexts are represented by similar numerical vectors.

We will use the Harry Potter books as our data. Let’s start by installing the harrypotter package from github using remotes.

library(harrypotter) # Not to be confused with the CRAN palettes package

The harrypotter package supplies the first seven novels in the Harry Potter series. Here is some info about this data set:

  • A data set with all Harry Potter books.
    This data set contains the full texts of the first seven Harry Potter books (see below the list). Each text is in a character vector with each element representing a single chapter. It is provided from the harrypotter package written by Bradley Boehmke.

    • philosophers_stone: Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, published in 1997
    • chamber_of_secrets: Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, published in 1998
    • prisoner_of_azkaban: Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, published in 1999
    • goblet_of_fire: Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, published in 2000
    • order_of_the_phoenix: Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, published in 2003
    • half_blood_prince: Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, published in 2005
    • deathly_hallows: Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, published in 2007
1. Use the code below to load the first seven novels in the Harry Potter series.
hp_books <- c("philosophers_stone", "chamber_of_secrets",
              "prisoner_of_azkaban", "goblet_of_fire",
              "order_of_the_phoenix", "half_blood_prince",

hp_words <- list(
) |>
  # name each list element
  set_names(hp_books) |>
  # convert each book to a data frame and merge into a single data frame
  map_df(as_tibble, .id = "book") |>
  # convert book to a factor
  mutate(book = factor(book, levels = hp_books)) |>
  # remove empty chapters
  filter(!is.na(value)) |>
  # create a chapter id column
  group_by(book) |>
  mutate(chapter = row_number(book))

2. Use the unnest_tokens function from the tidytext package to tokenize the data frame and name your object hp_words.
3. Remove the stop words from the tokenized data frame.

Hint: Use anti_join function to filter the stop_words from the tidytext package.

4. Creates a vocabulary of unique terms using the create_vocabulary function from the text2vec package and remove the words that they appear less than 5 times.

Hint: The code is given below, make sure you understand it.
Step 1. Create a list of words from hp_words (iterator object) using list function.
Step 2. Use the itoken function on the word list to create index-tokens.
Step 3: Use the create_vocabulary function on the itoken object to collect unique terms.
Step 4: Use the prune_vocabulary on the dataframe of unique terms and specify term_count_min = 5 to filter the infrequent terms.

# make it a list (iterator)
hp_words_ls <- list(hp_words$word)
# create index-tokens
it <- itoken(hp_words_ls, progressbar = FALSE) 
# collects unique terms 
hp_vocab <- create_vocabulary(it)
# filters the infrequent terms (number of occurrence is less than 5)
hp_vocab <- prune_vocabulary(hp_vocab, term_count_min = 5)
# show the resulting vocabulary object (formatting it with datatable)

# We've just created word counts, that's all the vocabulary object is!
5. The next step is to create a token co-occurrence matrix(TCM). First, we need to apply vocab_vectorizer function to transform the list of tokens into a vector space. Then, use create_tcm function to create a TCM with the window of 5 for context words.

Hint: The code is given below, make sure you understand it. Step 1: Map the words to indices by vocab_vectorizer(vocabulary object from Q14).
Step 2: Create a TCM by create_tcm(it, vectorizer function from Step 1, skip_grams_window = 5). it is the list of iterators over tokens from itoken.

# maps words to indices
vectorizer <- vocab_vectorizer(hp_vocab)
# use window of 5 for context words
hp_tcm <- create_tcm(it, vectorizer, skip_grams_window = 5)

# Note that such a matrix will be extremely sparse. 
# Most words do not go with other words in the grand 
# scheme of things. So when they do, it usually matters.
6. Use the GlobalVectors as given in the code below to fit the word vectors on our data set. Choose the embedding size (rank variable) equal to 50, and the maximum number of co-occurrences equal to 10. Train word vectors in 20 iterations. You can check the full input arguments of the fit_transform function from here.
glove      <- GlobalVectors$new(rank = 50, x_max = 10)
hp_wv_main <- glove$fit_transform(hp_tcm, n_iter = 20, convergence_tol = 0.001)
7. The GloVe model learns two sets of word vectors: main and context. Essentially they are the same since the model is symmetric. In general combining the two sets of word vectors leads to higher quality embeddings (read more here). The best practice is to combine both the main word vectors and the context word vectors into one matrix. Extract the word vectors and save the summation of them for further questions.

Hint: Follow the steps below.

Step 1: Extract context word vectors by glove$components.
Step 2: Sum two sets of word vectors (e.g., hv_wv_main + t(hp_wv_context)).

8. Find the most similar 10 words to each of the words: “harry”, “death”, and “love”.

Hint: Follow the steps below.

Step 1: Extract the row of the corresponding word from the word vector matrix (e.g., matrix[“harry”, , drop = FALSE]).
Step 2: Use sim2 function with the cosine similarity measure to calculate the pairwise similarities between the chosen row vector (from Step 1) and the rest of words: sim2(x = whole word vector matrix, y = chosen row vector, method = "cosine", norm = "l2").
Step 3: Sort the resulting column vector of similarities in descending order and present the first 10 values. For example, you can do this by head(sort(similarity vector, decrasing = TRUE), 10).
Step 4: Repeat Step 1 - Step 3 for the other words.

9. Now you can play with word vectors! For example, add the word vector of “harry” with the word vector of “love” and subtract them from the word vector of “death”. What are the top terms in your result?

Hint: You can literally add/subtract the word vectors to each other (e.g., harry word vector + love word vector - death word vector). Once you have the resulting vector, calculate similarities as you did previously in Question 8.

Dictionary-based Sentiment Analysis

In this part of the practical, we are going to apply dictionary-based sentiment analysis methods on the movie_review data set.

Text data set

We are going to use the data set movie_review. This is a data set with 5,000 IMDB movie reviews available from the text2vec package, labeled according to their IMDB rating The sentiment of the reviews is binary, meaning an IMDB rating < 5 results in a sentiment score of 0, and a rating >=7 has a sentiment score of 1. No individual movie has more than 30 reviews.

The objective of the practical is to understand if the reviews are predictive of the IMDB rating.

Let’s load the data set and convert it to a dataframe.

# load the movie review dataset from the text2vec package
movie_review <- as_tibble(movie_review)

Dictionary-based sentiment analysis

The tidytext package contains 4 general purpose lexicons in the sentiments dataset.

  • afinn: list of English words rated for valence between -5 and +5
  • bing: list of positive and negative sentiment
  • nrc: list of English words and their associations with 8 emotions (anger, fear, anticipation, trust, surprise, sadness, joy, and disgust) and 2 sentiments (negative and positive); binary
  • loughran: list of sentiment words for accounting and finance by category (Negative, Positive, Uncertainty, Litigious, Strong Modal, Weak Modal, Constraining)

We are going to use labMT dictionary (Dodds’ et al. 2011), one of the best dictionaries for sentiment analysis (see e.g. this paper.)